Aedes Mosquito Control and Surveillance in the Pacific

Main Article Content

Lydia Anderson
Fa'afetai Sopoaga
Susan Jack


Aedes, Mosquito control, Pacific, Surveillance, Vector control



Mosquitoes of the genus Aedes transmit dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses, and the incidence of these diseases is increasing in the Pacific. This can be attributed to increased movement of people and goods, unplanned urbanisation, and global warming, among other factors. As vaccines are unavailable, we rely on vector control programs to prevent disease transmission. This study aimed to evaluate current practice in vector control and surveillance in 10 Pacific Island countries and identify evidence-based vector control interventions and surveillance methods for use in these countries.



This study was conducted in preparation for TechCamp New Zealand, 24-26 January 2018, which aimed to work with stakeholders from 10 Pacific nations to reduce the spread of vector-borne diseases in the region. We conducted a literature review of published reviews and meta-analyses evaluating Aedes control and surveillance to find methods appropriate for use in Pacific Island countries. We collected information regarding current Aedes mosquito control and surveillance practice in 10 Pacific countries from TechCamp participants, through a survey, presentation and interview.



Findings include evidence-based vector control interventions and surveillance methods, and current vector control and surveillance practice in 10 Pacific Island countries. Combinations of vector control interventions, applied appropriately, can prevent disease transmission. Although such programs exist in the Pacific, some interventions do not currently follow best practice. Key barriers to implementing evidence-based practice include lack of targeted education, internet and network coverage, personnel and expertise.



Future goals for the region include the adaptation of current practice to evidence-based practice, and the development of vector and risk factor surveillance for targeted mosquito control. New developments should be sustainable and not reliant on internet or network real-time coverage. Education should be targeted to local communities to maximise community participation.

Abstract 269 | PDF Downloads 20


1. Bouzid M, Brainard J, Hooper L, Hunter PR. Public Health Interventions for Aedes Control in the Time of Zikavirus- A Meta-Review on Effectiveness of Vector Control Strategies. PLoS Negl Trop Dis [electronic resource]. 2016;10(12):e0005176.
2. WHO. Western Pacific Regional Action Plan for Dengue Prevention and Control 2016; 2016.
3. Grunnill M, Boots M. How Important is Vertical Transmission of Dengue Viruses by Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)? J Med Entomol. 2016;53(1):1-19.
4. Shragai T, Tesla B, Murdock C, Harrington LC. Zika and chikungunya: mosquito-borne viruses in a changing world. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017;1399(1):61-77.
5. Huntington MK, Allison J, Nair D. Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases. Am Fam Physician. 2016;94(7):551-7.
6. Urdaneta-Marquez L, Failloux AB. Population genetic structure of Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of dengue viruses. Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11(2):253-61.
7. Azil AH, Li M, Williams CR. Dengue vector surveillance programs: a review of methodological diversity in some endemic and epidemic countries. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2011;23(6):827-42.
8. Bureau of International Information Programs USDoS. TechCamp 2018. Available from:
9. Horstick O, Ranzinger SR. Interim Analysis of the Contribution of High-Level Evidence for Dengue Vector Control. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2015;46 Suppl 1:131-7.
10. Chang MS, Gopinath D, and Abdur RM, on behalf of Malaria, Other Vectorborne and Parasitic Diseases WHO, WPRO. Challenges and future perspective for dengue vector control in the Western Pacific Region. Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal. 2011;2(2):9-16.
11. TechCamp Participants. TechCamp New Zealand. Auckland, New Zealand. 2018.
12. WHO. Global Vector Control Response 2017-2030; 2017.
13. Invest JF, Lucas JR. Pyriproxyfen as a Mosquito Larvicide. Sixth International Conference on Urban Pests. 2008; Hungary: OOK-Press Kft.
14. Marcombe S, Darriet F, Agnew P, Etienne M, Yp-Tcha MM, Yebakima A, et al. Field efficacy of new larvicide products for control of multi-resistant Aedes aegypti populations in Martinique (French West Indies). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;84(1):118-26.
15. Dias CN, Moraes DF. Essential oils and their compounds as Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvicides: review. Parasitol Res. 2014;113(2):565-92.
16. Han WW, Lazaro A, McCall PJ, George L, Runge-Ranzinger S, Toledo J, et al. Efficacy and community effectiveness of larvivorous fish for dengue vector control. Trop Med Int Health. 2015;20(9):1239-56.
17. Lazaro A, Han WW, Manrique-Saide P, George L, Velayudhan R, Toledo J, et al. Community effectiveness of copepods for dengue vector control: systematic review. Trop Med Int Health. 2015;20(6):685-706.
18. Schreiber ET. Toxorhynchites. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2007;23(2 Suppl):129-32.
19. Wilson AL, Dhiman RC, Kitron U, Scott TW, van den Berg H, Lindsay SW. Benefit of insecticide-treated nets, curtains and screening on vector borne diseases, excluding malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis [electronic resource]. 2014;8(10):e3228.
20. Samuel M, Maoz D, Manrique P, Ward T, Runge-Ranzinger S, Toledo J, et al. Community effectiveness of indoor spraying as a dengue vector control method: A systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis [electronic resource]. 2017;11(8):e0005837.
21. Sivagnaname N, Gunasekaran K. Need for an efficient adult trap for the surveillance of dengue vectors. Indian J Med Res. 2012;136(5):739-49.
22. Lupi E, Hatz C, Schlagenhauf P. The efficacy of repellents against Aedes, Anopheles, Culex and Ixodes spp. - a literature review. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2013;11(6):374-411.
23. Bourtzis K, Lees RS, Hendrichs J, Vreysen MJ. More than one rabbit out of the hat: Radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based approaches for sustainable management of mosquito and tsetse fly populations. Acta Trop. 2016;157:115-30.
24. Heintze C, Velasco Garrido M, Kroeger A. What do community-based dengue control programmes achieve? A systematic review of published evaluations. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101(4):317-25.
25. Mukundarajan H, Hol FJH, Castillo EA, Newby C, Prakash M. Using mobile phones as acoustic sensors for high-throughput mosquito surveillance. Elife. 2017;6.
26. Kool JL, Paterson B, Pavlin BI, Durrheim D, Musto J, Kolbe A. Pacific-wide simplified syndromic surveillance for early warning of outbreaks. Glob Public Health. 2012;7(7):670-81.
27. Pollett S, Althouse BM, Forshey B, Rutherford GW, Jarman RG. Internet-based biosurveillance methods for vector-borne diseases: Are they novel public health tools or just novelties? PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11(11):e0005871.
28. de Lima TF, Lana RM, de Senna Carneiro TG, Codeco CT, Machado GS, Ferreira LS, et al. DengueME: A Tool for the Modeling and Simulation of Dengue Spatiotemporal Dynamics. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;13(9):15.
29. CDC. Epi Info Vector Surveillance Application 2018. Available from: