Family-tree Mapping and Gender-based Violence (GBV) in Niue: Research Method and Intervention

Main Article Content

Erin Thomas
Charlene Tukiuha
Yvonne Underhill-Sem
Jama'l Talagi

Keywords

gender-based violence, family tree, family violence, domestic violence, accountability

Abstract

Introduction: Gender-based violence (GBV) is a product and manifestation of gender relations that inflicts harm disproportionately on those who identify as women and girls. In the Pacific island country of Niue, there is a lack of research and attention on the issue. The aim of this research is to examine how to work with the family space in Niue to achieve the goal of eliminating violence in social relations in Niue and promoting healthy relationships.


Methods: The research involved 14 family-tree mapping interviews using blended narrative-talanoa methods. Guided by a genealogical approach, this family-tree mapping approach was piloted as a tool for in-depth exploration of how the family space functions around GBV.


Findings: This framework presents a new way of engaging with the issue of GBV in terms of research and intervention through family-tree mapping in a way that illuminates the dynamics around disclosure, accountability, education, and talanoa/ gossip, but also protects the privacy of participants.


Conclusion: By making space within families through family-tree mapping to discuss GBV, local advocates can better understand the complexity and intimacy of family dynamics, uphold the imperatives for privacy, and guide communities towards prevention and accountability.

Abstract 89 | PDF Downloads 40

References


1. UN Women, Ending Violence Against Women and Girls - Evidence, Data and Knowledge in Pacific Island Countries. Suva, Fiji: UN Women; 2011[cited 2021 Jan 26]. Available from: https://asiapacific.unwomen.org/en/digital-library/publications/2011/7/ending-violence-against-women-and-girls.
2. Central Statistics Division, South Pacific Community, Macro International Inc. Tuvalu Demographic and Health Survey 2007. Noumea, New Caledonia: South Pacific Community; 2009 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. Available from: https://www.spc.int/DigitalLibrary/Doc/SDD/DHS/TV/Tuvalu_Demographic_and_Health_Survey_DHS_Report_2007.pdf.; Heard E, Fitzgerald L, Whittaker M, Va’ai S, Mutch A. (2018). Exploring Intimate Partner Violence in Polynesia: A Scoping Review. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse. 2020 [cited 2021 Jan 26]; 21(4):769-778. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838018795504.; Jansen H, Johansson-Fua S, Hafoka-Blake B, ‘Ilolahia G R. National study of domestic violence against women in Tonga 2009: Nofo ‘a Kainga. Nuku’alofa, Tonga: Ma’a Fafine mo e Famili; 2012 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. Available from: https://pacific.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/tonga-vaw-report-final-2012.pdf.; South Pacific Community. The Samoa Family Health and Safety Study. Noumea, New Caledonia: South Pacific Community; 2006 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. Available from: https://pacific.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/SamoaFamilyHealthandSafetyStudy.pdf.; Te Marae Ora/Ministry of Health Cook Islands. Te Ata O Te Ngakau The Cook Islands Family Health and Safety Study. UNFPA; 2014 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. Available from: https://pacific.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/CIFHSSReportweb.pdf.
3. Kauli J, Thomas V. Media Practice and Theatre in Conversation: Co-Creating Narratives for Positive Social Change. ArtsPraxis. 2019 [cited 2021 Jan 26]; 5(2):225–242. Available from: https://eprints.qut.edu.au/128183/.
4. Sumner C, Lister L. Balancing the Scales: Improving Fijian Women’s Access to Justice. Suva, Fiji: Fiji Women’s Rights Movement; 2017 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. Available from: http://www.fwrm.org.fj/images/fwrm2017/publications/analysis/Balancing-the-Scales-Report_FINAL-Digital.pdf.
5. Manderson L. Fighting Violence Against Women. Development. 2001 [cited 2021 Jan 26];44:6–8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.development.1110253.
6. Crichton-Hill Y. Challenging Ethnocentric Explanations of Domestic Violence. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse. 2001 [cited 2021 May 7];2:203–214. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838001002003001.; Mohanty C T. Under Western Eyes: Gender Scholarship and Colonial Discourses. In Feminism without borders: Decolonizing theory, practicing solidarity. (pp. 17–42). Duke University Press; 2003 [cited 2021 May 7]. Available from: https://www.dukeupress.edu/feminism-without-borders.; Rankine J, Percival T, Finau E, Hope L-T, Kingi P, Peteru M C, et al. (2015). Pacific Peoples, Violence, and the Power and Control Wheel. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 2015 [cited 2021 May 7];1–27. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260515596148.
7. Central Statistics Division, South Pacific Community, Macro International Inc. Tuvalu Demographic and Health Survey 2007. Noumea, New Caledonia: South Pacific Community; 2009 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. Available from: https://www.spc.int/DigitalLibrary/Doc/SDD/DHS/TV/Tuvalu_Demographic_and_Health_Survey_DHS_Report_2007.pdf.; Heard E, Fitzgerald L, Whittaker M, Va’ai S, Mutch A. (2018). Exploring Intimate Partner Violence in Polynesia: A Scoping Review. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse. 2020 [cited 2021 Jan 26]; 21(4):769-778. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838018795504.; Jansen H, Johansson-Fua S, Hafoka-Blake B, ‘Ilolahia G R. National study of domestic violence against women in Tonga 2009: Nofo ‘a Kainga. Nuku’alofa, Tonga: Ma’a Fafine mo e Famili; 2012 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. Available from: https://pacific.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/tonga-vaw-report-final-2012.pdf.; South Pacific Community. The Samoa Family Health and Safety Study. Noumea, New Caledonia: South Pacific Community; 2006 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. Available from: https://pacific.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/SamoaFamilyHealthandSafetyStudy.pdf.; Te Marae Ora/Ministry of Health Cook Islands. Te Ata O Te Ngakau The Cook Islands Family Health and Safety Study. UNFPA; 2014 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. Available from: https://pacific.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/CIFHSSReportweb.pdf.
8. World Health Organisation. Guidelines for Producing Statistics on Violence Against Women. New York, New York: United Nations; 2014 [cited 2021 May 7]. Available from: https://unstats.un.org/unsd/gender/docs/guidelines_statistics_vaw.pdf.
9. Thomas E. Assessing Gender-Based Violence in Niue. International Center for Advocates Against Discrimination; 2017 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. Available from: https://icaad.ngo/2017/11/22/assessing-gender-based-violence-niue/.
10. South Pacific Community. Stocktake of the Gender Mainstreaming Capacity of Pacific Island Governments: Niue. Noumea, New Caledonia: South Pacific Community; 2015 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. Available from: https://pacificwomen.org/resources/stocktake-of-gender-mainstreaming-in-niue/.
11. Calvert I. Niue: A Situation Analysis of Children, Women and Youth. UNICEF; 2004 [cited 2021 May 7]. Available at: https://www.unicef.org/pacificislands/Niue_Sitan_Report_Latest_pdf.pdf.; South Pacific Community. Stocktake of the Gender Mainstreaming Capacity of Pacific Island Governments: Niue. Noumea, New Caledonia: South Pacific Community; 2015 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. Available from: https://pacificwomen.org/resources/stocktake-of-gender-mainstreaming-in-niue/.
12. Percival T, Robati-Mani R, Powell E, Kingi P, Peteru M C, Hope L-T, et al. Pacific pathways to the prevention of sexual violence. School of Population Health University of Auckland; 2010 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. Available from: https://www.mpp.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/Pacific-PPSV-full-online-version.pdf.; Tavelia M. Koe Fakatupuolamoui he tau Magafaoa Niue: A Niuean Conceptual Framework for addressing family violence. New Zealand Ministry of Social Development; 2012 [cited 2021 Jan 28]. Available from: http://www.pasefikaproud.co.nz/assets/Resources-for-download/PasefikaProudResource-Nga-Vaka-o-Kaiga-Tapu-Pacific-Framework-Niuean.pdf.
13. Percival T, Robati-Mani R, Powell E, Kingi P, Peteru M C, Hope L-T, et al. Pacific pathways to the prevention of sexual violence. School of Population Health University of Auckland; 2010 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. Available from: https://www.mpp.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/Pacific-PPSV-full-online-version.pdf.
14. Thomas E. Assessing Gender-Based Violence in Niue. International Center for Advocates Against Discrimination; 2017 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. Available from: https://icaad.ngo/2017/11/22/assessing-gender-based-violence-niue/.
15. Tavelia M. Koe Fakatupuolamoui he tau Magafaoa Niue: A Niuean Conceptual Framework for addressing family violence. New Zealand Ministry of Social Development; 2012 [cited 2021 Jan 28]. Available from: http://www.pasefikaproud.co.nz/assets/Resources-for-download/PasefikaProudResource-Nga-Vaka-o-Kaiga-Tapu-Pacific-Framework-Niuean.pdf.
16. Pasisi J L. Kitaga Mo Fakamahani E Hikihikiaga Matagi He Tau Fifine Niue: Tau Puhala He Tau Hiapo Niue Women’s Perspectives and Experiences of Climate Change: A Hiapo Approach [Doctoral Thesis]. Hamilton, New Zealand: University of Waikato; 2020 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. Available from: https://hdl.handle.net/10289/13380.
17. Tavelia M. Koe Fakatupuolamoui he tau Magafaoa Niue: A Niuean Conceptual Framework for addressing family violence. New Zealand Ministry of Social Development; 2012 [cited 2021 Jan 28]. Available from: http://www.pasefikaproud.co.nz/assets/Resources-for-download/PasefikaProudResource-Nga-Vaka-o-Kaiga-Tapu-Pacific-Framework-Niuean.pdf.
18. Tolmie J, Wilson D, Smith R. New Zealand. In: Dawson M, editor. Domestic Homicides and 103 Death Reviews: An International Perspective. London: Palgrave Macmillan; 2017 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. p. 159–198. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-56276-0.
19. Doucet A, Mauthner N S. What can be known and how? Narrated subjects and the listening guide. Qualitative Research. 2008 [cited 2021 Jan 28];8(3):399–409. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794106093636.
20. Farrelly T, Nabobo-Baba U. Talanoa as empathic apprenticeship. Asia Pacific Viewpoint. 2014 [cited 2021 Jan 28]:55(3):319–330. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/apv.12060.
21. Fa’avae D, Jones A, Manu’atu L. Talanoa’i ’a e talanoa - Talking about talanoa. AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples. 2016 [cited 2021 Jan 28];12(2):138–150. Available from: https://doi.org/10.20507/AlterNative.2016.12.2.3.; Farrelly T, Nabobo-Baba U. Talanoa as empathic apprenticeship. Asia Pacific Viewpoint. 2014 [cited 2021 Jan 28]:55(3):319–330. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/apv.12060.; Suaalii-Sauni T, Fulu-Aiolupotea S M. Decolonising Pacific research, building Pacific research communities and developing Pacific research tools: The case of the talanoa and the faafaletui in Samoa. Asia Pacific Viewpoint. 2014 [cited 2021 Jan 28];55(3):331–344. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/apv.12061.; Vaioleti T. Talanoa Research Methodology: A Developing Position on Pacific Research. Waikato Journal of Education. 2006 [cited 2021 Jan 28];12:21–34. Available from: https://hdl.handle.net/10289/6199.
22. Doucet A, Mauthner N S. What can be known and how? Narrated subjects and the listening guide. Qualitative Research. 2008 [cited 2021 Jan 28];8(3):399–409. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794106093636.; Somers M R. The narrative constitution of identity: A relational and network approach. Theory and Society. 1994 [cited 2021 Jan 28];23:605–649. Available from: https://doi.org/10.23938/assn.0493.; Stanley L, Wise S. Breaking out Again: Feminist Ontology and Epistemology (2nd ed.). Routledge; 1993 [cited 2021 May 7]. Available from: https://doi.org/10.2307/3340731.
23. Vaioleti T. Talanoa Research Methodology: A Developing Position on Pacific Research. Waikato Journal of Education. 2006 [cited 2021 Jan 28];12:21–34. Available from: https://hdl.handle.net/10289/6199.
24. Davis K, Taylor B. Voices from the margins Part 1: narrative accounts of indigenous family violence. Contemporary Nurse : A Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession. 2002 [cited 2021 Jan 28];14(1):66–75. Available from: https://doi.org/10.5172/conu.14.1.66.
25. Somers M R. The narrative constitution of identity: A relational and network approach. Theory and Society. 1994 [cited 2021 Jan 28];23:605–649. Available from: https://doi.org/10.23938/assn.0493.
26. Vaioleti T. Talanoa Research Methodology: A Developing Position on Pacific Research. Waikato Journal of Education. 2006 [cited 2021 Jan 28];12:21–34. Available from: https://hdl.handle.net/10289/6199.
27. Fa’avae D, Jones A, Manu’atu L. Talanoa’i ’a e talanoa - Talking about talanoa. AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples. 2016 [cited 2021 Jan 28];12(2):138–150. Available from: https://doi.org/10.20507/AlterNative.2016.12.2.3.; Farrelly T, Nabobo-Baba U. Talanoa as empathic apprenticeship. Asia Pacific Viewpoint. 2014 [cited 2021 Jan 28]:55(3):319–330. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/apv.12060.; Suaalii-Sauni T, Fulu-Aiolupotea S M. Decolonising Pacific research, building Pacific research communities and developing Pacific research tools: The case of the talanoa and the faafaletui in Samoa. Asia Pacific Viewpoint. 2014 [cited 2021 Jan 28];55(3):331–344. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/apv.12061.; Vaioleti T. Talanoa Research Methodology: A Developing Position on Pacific Research. Waikato Journal of Education. 2006 [cited 2021 Jan 28];12:21–34. Available from: https://hdl.handle.net/10289/6199.
28. Thomas E. Gender-based Violence in Niue: Challenges and Opportunities in Small Pacific Islands [Masters Thesis]. Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland; 2020 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2292/53469.
29. Affleck W. The Inappropriate Use of Risk-Benefit Analysis in the Risk Assessment of Experimental Trauma-Focused Research. Accountability in Research. 2017 [cited 2021 Jan 28];24(7):384–406. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2017.1362557.; Fontes L A. Ethics in Violence Against Women Research: The Sensitive, the Dangerous, and the Overlooked. Ethics & Behavior. 2004 [cited 2021 Jan 28];14(2):141–174. Available from: http://doi.org/10.1207/s15327019eb1402_4.; Newman E, Kaloupek D. Overview of Research Addressing Ethical Dimensions of Participation in Traumatic Stress Studies: Autonomy and Beneficence. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2009 [cited 2021 Jan 28];22(6):595–602. Available from: http://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20465.; Nguyen H T. Gendered Vulnerabilities in Times of Natural Disasters: Male-to-Female Violence in the Philippines in the Aftermath of Super Typhoon Haiyan. Violence Against Women. 2019 [cited 2021 Jan 28]:25(4):421–440. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801218790701.
30. Fontes L A. Ethics in Violence Against Women Research: The Sensitive, the Dangerous, and the Overlooked. Ethics & Behavior. 2004 [cited 2021 Jan 28];14(2):141–174. Available from: http://doi.org/10.1207/s15327019eb1402_4.
31. Affleck W. The Inappropriate Use of Risk-Benefit Analysis in the Risk Assessment of Experimental Trauma-Focused Research. Accountability in Research. 2017 [cited 2021 Jan 28];24(7):384–406. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2017.1362557.; Newman E, Kaloupek D. Overview of Research Addressing Ethical Dimensions of Participation in Traumatic Stress Studies: Autonomy and Beneficence. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2009 [cited 2021 Jan 28];22(6):595–602. Available from: http://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20465.; Nguyen H T. Gendered Vulnerabilities in Times of Natural Disasters: Male-to-Female Violence in the Philippines in the Aftermath of Super Typhoon Haiyan. Violence Against Women. 2019 [cited 2021 Jan 28]:25(4):421–440. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801218790701.
32. Farrelly T, Nabobo-Baba U. Talanoa as empathic apprenticeship. Asia Pacific Viewpoint. 2014 [cited 2021 Jan 28]:55(3):319–330. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/apv.12060.
33. Fontes L A. Ethics in Violence Against Women Research: The Sensitive, the Dangerous, and the Overlooked. Ethics & Behavior. 2004 [cited 2021 Jan 28];14(2):141–174. Available from: http://doi.org/10.1207/s15327019eb1402_4.; Newman E, Kaloupek D. Overview of Research Addressing Ethical Dimensions of Participation in Traumatic Stress Studies: Autonomy and Beneficence. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2009 [cited 2021 Jan 28];22(6):595–602. Available from: http://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20465.; Pio E, Singh S. Vulnerability and resilience: critical reflexivity in gendered violence research. Third World Quarterly. 2016 [cited 2021 Jan 28];37(2):227–244. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2015.1089166.
34. Heard E, Fitzgerald L, Va’ai S, Collins F, Whittaker M, Mutch A. ‘In the Islands people don’t really talk about this stuff, so you go through life on your own’: An arts-based study exploring intimate relationships with young people in Samoa. Culture, Health and Sexuality. 2019 [cited 2021 Jan 26];21(5):526– 542. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1080/13691058.2018.1492021.
35. Woodward-Hanna R. A Patchwork of Participation: Wan Smolbag Theatre’s ‘Big Plays’ in Vanuatu. Australasian Drama Studies. 2014 Apr [cited 2021 Jan 28];64:223–242. Available from: https://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=257536112365447;res=IELHSS;type=pdf.
36. Thomas V, Kauli J, Borrey A. Harnessing community-led innovations: the role of participatory media in addressing gender-based violence. Development in Practice. 2018 [cited 2021 Jan 26];28(30):345– 357. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1080/09614524.2018.1430748.
37. Naepi S. Masi methodology: centering Pacific women’s voices in research. AlterNative. 2019 [cited 2021 Jan 28];15(3):234-242. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1177/1177180119876729. Pasisi J L. Kitaga Mo Fakamahani E Hikihikiaga Matagi He Tau Fifine Niue: Tau Puhala He Tau Hiapo Niue Women’s Perspectives and Experiences of Climate Change: A Hiapo Approach [Doctoral Thesis]. Hamilton, New Zealand: University of Waikato; 2020 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. Available from: https://hdl.handle.net/10289/13380. Patterson (now Naepi) S E. (2018). Beyond the Dusky Maiden: Pasifika Women’s Experiences Working in Higher Education [Doctoral Thesis]. British Columbia, Canada: University of British Columbia; 2018 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0370998.