Main Article Content
COVID-19, Palliative care, Co-morbidities, Chronic diseases, Health Care Workers, Resource-limited Settings
As the global surge of the COVID-19 pandemic continues to rise, attention has been drawn to health implications and damaging effects caused by COVID-19 in patients with chronic conditions. Palliative care delivery in diseased patients and those with chronic conditions is imperative in mitigating unprecedented health outcomes. Though many health care workers in developed countries are implementing new strategies to address palliative care challenges in patients at risk of COVID-19, preventive measures and strategies are crucial in resource-limited settings, where palliative care is seen as a new concept. This report addresses the approach to palliative care delivery and changes that may arise from the coronavirus pandemic. It also looks at possible socio-behavioural entities, education, preventive measures and upscaling diagnostic capacity for COVID-19 in resource-limited settings. Harnessing these factors as guidance and delivery tools for healthcare workers in resource-limited settings could help to manage risks and benefits associated with providing optimal palliative care in this pandemic period.
2. Palevsky PM, Radhakrishnan J, Townsend RR. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Issues related to kidney disease and hypertension. 2020. Available from: https://www.u5ptodate.com/contents/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19-issues-related-to-kidney-disease-and-hypertension#H3887812283 (Accessed: July 2 2020).
3. Mehta AK & Smith TJ. Palliative Care for Patients with Cancer in the COVID-19 Era. JAMA Oncology 2020; 7. Available from: http://dx.doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.1938
4. Garg S, Kim L, Whitaker M, O’Halloran A, Cummings C, Holstein R, et al. Hospitalization Rates and Characteristics of Patients Hospitalized with Laboratory-Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 — COVID-NET, 14 States, March 1–30, 2020. MMWR Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report 2020; 69(15): 458-464.
5. Richardson S, Hirsch JS, Narasimhan M, Crawford JM, McGinn T, Davidson, KW, et al. Presenting Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Outcomes among 5700 Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19 in the New York City Area. JAMA 2020; 323(20):2052-2059.
6. Akalin E, Azzi Y, Bartash R, Seethamraju H, Parides M, Hemmige V, et al. Covid-19 and Kidney Transplantation. New England Journal of Medicine 2020; 382(25):2475–7.
7. Al-Mahrezi A & Al-Mandhari Z. Palliative Care: Time for Action. Oman Medical Journal 2016; 31(3):161–3. Doi: dx.doi.org/10.5001/OMJ.2016.32
8. Zaman S, Inbadas H, Whitelaw A, Clark D. Common or multiple futures for end of life care around the world? Ideas from the ‘waiting room of history’. Social Science Medicine 2017; 172:72-9. Doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.11.012
9. Knaul FM, Farmer PE, Krakauer EL, De Lima L, Bhadelia A, Kwete XJ, et al. Alleviating the access abyss in palliative care and pain relief-an imperative of universal health coverage: the Lancet Commission report. Lancet 2018; 391:1391-454. Doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32513-8
10. Zhou X, Snoswell CL, Harding LE, Bambling M, Edirippulige S, Bai X. The role of telehealth in reducing the mental health burden from COVID-19. Telemed J E Health 2020; 26(4):377-379. Doi: 10.1089/tmj.2020.0068.
11. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention CDC. Interim guidance for healthcare facilities: preparing for community transmission of COVID-19 in the United States. CDC. 2020. Available from: cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/healthcare-facilities/guidance-hcf.html. Updated February 29, 2020. (Accessed August 13, 2020).
12. Goldberg, M. Washington Department of Health briefs senate on status of COVID-19. State of Reform.2020. Available from: stateofreform.com/issues/public-health-2/2020/03/washington-department-of-health-briefs-senate-on-covid-19-updates. (Accessed August 13, 2020).
13. Ting R, Edmonds P, Higginson IJ, Sleeman KE. Palliative care for patients with severe COVID-19. BMJ. 2020; 14. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/BMJ.M2710 (Accessed August 13, 2020).
14. Tran DL, Lai SR, Salah RY, Wong AY, Bryon JN, McKenna MC, et al. Rapid De-Escalation and Triaging Patients in Community-Based Palliative Care. J Pain Symptom Manage 2020; 60(1):45-47 doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.03.040
15. Oseni TIA, Agbede RO, Fatusin BB, Odewale MA. The role of the family physician in the fight against Coronavirus disease 2019 in Nigeria. African Journal of Primary Health Care Fam Med 2020; 12(1):1-3. doi: 10.4102/phcfm.v12i1.2492
16. SIAARTI - Italian Society of Anaesthesia Analgesia Resuscitation and Intensive Care Bioethical Board. End-of-life care and the intensivist: SIAARTI recommendations on the management of the dying patient. Minerva Anestesiol 2006; 72(12):927-63. English, Italian. PMID: 17235263
17. Bajwah S, Wilcock A, Towers R, Costantini M, Bausewein C, Simon ST et al. Managing the supportive care needs of those affected by COVID-19. European Respiratory Journal 2020; 55(4). Doi: 10.1183/13993003.00815-2020.
18. Hill L, Beattie JM, Geller TP, Baruah R, Boyne J, Stolfo GD et al. Palliative care: Essential support for patients with heart failure in the COVID-19 pandemic. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 2020; 19(6):469–72.
19. Kavanagh MM, Erondu NA, Tomori O, Dzau VJ, Okiro EA, Maleche A et al. Access to lifesaving medical resources for African countries: COVID-19 testing and response, ethics, and politics. Lancet 2020; 395(10238):1735-1738. Doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31093-X
20. Okeke IN. Diagnostic insufficiency in Africa. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 42(10) doi: 10.1086/503308.
21. Adebisi YA, Oke GI, Ademola PS, Chinemelum IG, Ogunkola IO, Lucero-Prisno DE. SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic testing in Africa: needs and challenges. Pan African Medical Journal 2020; 35(2). Doi: 10.11604/PAMJ.2020.35.4.22703.
22. White DB & Lo B. “A Framework for Rationing Ventilators and Critical Care Beds during the COVID-19 Pandemic.” JAMA 2020; 323(18):1773. Doi:10.1001/jama.2020.5046
23. Downar J & Seccareccia D. “Palliating a Pandemic: ‘All Patients Must Be Cared For.’” Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 2010; 39(2):291–295. Doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2009.11.241.